Heart surgery- An overview
A particular type of surgery, open heart surgery is performed to repair a fault or damage in the heart. In the course of this procedure, the chest is cut open and surgery is performed on the muscles valves or arteries of the heart.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is one most common type of heart surgery done on adults in India these days. In this procedure, heart surgeons use the arteries or veins that are healthy taken from another part of the body in order to bypass the blocked arteries. It alleviates pain and diminishes the associated heart attack risks.
Open heart surgery in India: When does the need arise
Open heart surgery is advised to patients suffering from coronary heart disease- this condition takes place when the blood vessels responsible for providing blood and oxygen to the heart muscle become narrow and hard. The hardening of the arteries normally occurs when a fatty material creates plaque on the walls of the coronary arteries. As a result of which, the size of the arteries diminishes leading to an improper blood-flow.
In addition, open heart surgery in India is performed to replace or repair heart valves, implant medical devices, and supersede medical devices with a donated heart.
How is it performed?
A heart surgeon performing a CABG on a patient follows a series of steps including,
- After the patient is given general anesthesia and put to rest, the surgeon makes an 8 to 10 inch cut in the patient’s chest. this cut goes through the patient’s breastbone to expose the heart.
- Once the heart can be seen, heart-to-lung bypass machine is connected to the patient. This machine clears the heart from blood or a while in order to allow the surgeon to operate.
- Then, the heart surgeon make use of a healthy vein or artery to pave a fresh path around the blocked artery. Further, the surgeon closes the breastbone with wire, leaving the wire inside the body. Finally, the original incision is stitched up.
No matter how accurately this procedure is done, there are a few risks involved such as
- Infection can be caused in the operated region; this risk is higher in patients dealing with diabetes and obesity.
- Chest pain, irregular heartbeat, fever, stroke, and neurological problems.
- Memory loss, blood loss, blood clot and pneumonia.
Heal faster- Recovery Process and Follow-Up Procedures
Post an open heart surgery, the patient needs to adhere to a set of instructions as illustrated below,
- Taking care of the incision: The patient who has been operated should keep their incision site warm and dry. Also, he or she should inspect the operated sited regularly for signs of infection.
- Managing the pain: Pain management is crucial, as it can play a fundamental role in enhancing the recovery speed and decreasing the likelihood of a host of complications at the same time.
- Getting enough sleep: A good sleep can make wonders when it comes to recovering from the critical surgical procedures such as of a open heart surgery.
The long-term outlook
Though surgery is a befitting solution for patients suffering from coronary heart disease, adopting a healthy lifestyle is absolutely essential.
The risks of heart issues can be cut down to a minimum by
- Eating a healthy diet- avoid taking food that is high on salt, fat and sugar content.
- Leading a active lifestyle.